Cyber crime, or computer-oriented crime, is a crime that involves a computer and a network.The computer may have been used in the commission of a crime, or it may be the target.Cyber crime may threaten a person or a nation’s security and financial health.
There are many privacy concerns surrounding cyber crime when confidential information is intercepted or disclosed, lawfully or otherwise. Debarati Halder and K. Jaishankar further define cyber crime from the perspective of gender and defined ‘cyber crime against women’ as “Crimes targeted against women with a motive to intentionally harm the victim psychologically and physically, using modern telecommunication networks such as internet and mobile phones”.Internationally, both governmental and non-state actors engage in cyber crimes, including espionage, financial theft, and other cross-border crimes. Cyber crimes crossing international borders and involving the actions of at least one nation-state is sometimes referred to as cyberwarfare.
A report (sponsored by McAfee), published in 2014, estimated that the annual damage to the global economy was $445 billion. Approximately $1.5 billion was lost in 2012 to online credit and debit card fraud in the US.In 2018, a study by Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), in partnership with McAfee, concludes that close to $600 billion, nearly one percent of global GDP, is lost to cyber crime each year.